Some US states have pressed charges against pregnant women who crack use drugs, including assault with a deadly weapon, corruption of a minor, manslaughter, child abuse, and distribution of drugs to a minor.
41 Crack addiction, like other addictions, distracts parents from the child and leads to inattentive parenting.
18 They were expected to be unable to form normal social bonds.
49 By one estimate, in the US 100,000 babies are born brain each year after brain having been exposed to crack cocaine in utero.Charles Krauthammer, a columnist for The Washington Post wrote in 1989, "theirs will be a life of certain suffering, of probable deviance, of permanent inferiority." 16 18 The president of Boston University at babies the time, John crack Silber, said "crack babies.Cocaine is undoubtedly bad for the fetus."Acute neonatal effects of cocaine exposure babies during pregnancy".3 12 A 1995 survey in the US found that between 30,000 and 160,000 cases of prenatal exposure to cocaine occur each year.Such prenatal strokes may be the cause of neurological problems found in some cocaine-exposed infants after birth.Chicagothe "crack babies" babies scare of the 1980s may have been overblown, a new study suggests."Poverty is a more powerful influence on the outcome of inner-city children than gestational exposure to cocaine Hurt said in a presentation crack of her research.These can potentially cause there to be long-term effects or even be fatal to the fetus.A b c Feng, Q (2005).Most people who were exposed to cocaine in utero are normal or close.
The harm to a child from PCE has implications for public policy and law.
There is also some evidence that boys may be must duty more vulnerable than girls to behavior problems.
15 Evidence suggests that in utero cocaine exposure leads to problems with behavior and sustained attention, possibly by affecting parts of manual the brain rise that are vulnerable to toxins during fetal development.
Many studies found that the children's family environment or violence were directly related to the teen's performance regardless of whether their mothers had used cocaine during pregnancy, the researchers said.
"Effects of prenatal exposure to cocaine on brain structure and function"."Psychoactive substance use during pregnancy: A review".20 Scientific studies that report that PCE has significant effects may be more likely to be published than those that do not.A b c d e updates Ren, J; Malanga, C; Tabit, E; Kosofsky, B (2004).Drugs Across the Spectrum.22 The euphoria experienced advanced by cocaine users is thought to be largely due to the way it prevents the neurotransmitter serotonin from being reabsorbed by the presynaptic neuron which released.A b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Ross EJ, Graham DL, Money KM, Stanwood GD (2015).Cocaine prevents the reuptake of the neurotransmitters manual dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine.In IQ studies, cocaine-exposed children do not appear to score lower than others.
"Crack babies: The epidemic that wasn't".
8 Pregnant mothers who use cocaine often use other drugs in addition, or they may be malnourished crack babies and brain damage and lacking in medical care.